Lithium battery is a kind of battery that uses lithium metal or lithium alloy as positive/negative electrode material and uses non-aqueous electrolyte solution. In 1912, the lithium metal battery was first proposed and studied by Gilbert N. Lewis. In the 1970s, M. S. Whittingham proposed and began to study lithium-ion batteries. Due to the very active chemical properties of lithium metal, the processing, storage and use of lithium metal have very high environmental requirements. With the development of science and technology, lithium batteries have become the mainstream.
Lithium batteries can be roughly divided into two categories: lithium metal batteries and lithium ion batteries. Lithium-ion batteries do not contain lithium in the metallic state and are rechargeable. The fifth generation of rechargeable batteries, lithium metal batteries, was born in 1996, and its safety, specific capacity, self-discharge rate and performance-price ratio are better than lithium-ion batteries. Due to its own high technical requirements, only companies in a few countries are producing such lithium metal batteries.